RSS

Tag Archives: human rights

Near Absence Of Government In Health Reform: Lessons From Nepal

In the US, many health care woes are blamed on the federal or state government. Whether there is too little oversight and lack of transparency or too much interference and regulation, it seems that policy and politics often end up getting blamed for health care system troubles. But what happens when one lives in a country with no functioning government? As one of the poorest countries in the world, with little to no government structure, Nepal has learned that health-related needs depend on local communities as well as international aid. Despite the vast differences between our countries, we have a lot to learn from one another about the underserved, health and decreasing disparities in access and outcomes.

Even with Nepal’s reliance on foreign assistance and continual poor health rankings, the US could learn a lot about a return to local or “community care.” Those in developing countries like Nepal have no alternatives. With poor infrastructure, unpredictable electricity and heat, and mountainous geographic barriers, the people of Nepal depend on local leaders and village health providers to care for the country’s millions of people. While Americans grapple with government involvement in the health sector, the Nepalese are now well versed in the pros and cons of no government organization.

In contrast, the Nepalese are looking to their allies from the States to help facilitate safe and fair democratic elections by the end of 2013.

In Nepal, the Constituent Assembly functioned in place of Parliament for many years, until its dissolution in May of 2012, often leaving health decisions and progress at a standstill. The developing country, which sits in the Himalayas and is home to eight of the world’s ten tallest mountain ranges, ranks 157 on the World Health Organization’s overall 2013 human development index. Moreover, Nepal has recently emerged from a decade-long armed insurgency creating an environment of insecurity and conflict that has only intensified poverty.

At present, the average Nepali spends only 5% of their annual income on health-related needs. According to the US State Department, “Nepal is one of the poorest countries in the world … The country faces several medium- and long-term development challenges, including strained capacity in government, civil society and the private sector to drive the development agenda, high vulnerability to climate change and a massive youth bulge.” Although surprisingly, despite economic troubles, Nepal has used its international aid partners and community-based health structure to become one of very few countries in the world on target to meet several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

The immobility of government has lead to geographical pockets where resources are almost nonexistent and dependency on foreign aid is great. Both the State Department and the US Agency for International Development (USAID) are working diligently in the capitol of Kathmandu to create sustainable health care programs that foster education, improve health outcomes and promote financial independence. However, it is difficult to see vast improvements in health outcomes and health equality without an active role by the people’s own government.

One of the added difficulties for health advancement is the country’s overwhelming number of natural disasters. Nepal is one of the most disaster-prone countries on earth. Annually, people experience floods, landslides, droughts, epidemics and persistent seismic activity. Due to these extreme difficulties, in tandem with direct health efforts USAID has created programs unique to Nepal, like the Program for Enhancement of Emergency Response (PEER) which aims at improving education on how to appropriately carry out activities such as search and rescue efforts in collapsed buildings and reduce health risks during disasters.

In addition to USAID, there are several local and international organizations that concentrate on improving health in Nepal and meeting MDGs. One specific organization that has focused on health and care in rural areas for more than 20 years is Himalayan Healthcare, a non-profit organization that specializes in creating viable programs in regions where health posts go unstaffed and undersupplied by the local government. “Rural Nepal, almost universally, has mostly rudimentary health care services which are inadequate but still go a long way if caring village health providers are available,” says Anil Parajuli, Himalayan Healthcare’s co-founder and Nepal-based Program Coordinator.

Like many community health centers in the US, serving both rural and urban communities, the Himalayan Healthcare model is not based on one’s ability to pay. Their mission is to treat anyone regardless of his or her gender, sex, caste, profession, or ability to pay. The President of the Himalayan Healthcare’s Board, Dr. Robert McKersie, believes that the US and Nepal have a lot to learn from one another. He claims that what makes a community center successful in either country is, “having input from the local stakeholders from day number one. Before this can happen the providers have to be accepted by, and have legitimacy with, the stakeholders.”

Dr. McKersie contends this acceptance does not always come easily. “Many of these communities (both Nepalese and underserved communities in the States) have historically been used or misled by ‘outsiders’. The buy in process for us was health care. After Himalayan Healthcare proved itself, we were ‘invited’ to help with what became the other two tenets of our community development model, namely education and income generation.” He goes on to say that, “organizations in the States that have done good community medicine know this model of having the community members have a stake in their healthcare.”

With so many differences, yet so many similarities in our underserved populations, it is no wonder health care providers in the US and Nepal view one another as a source of knowledge and inspiration.

At present, the next scheduled elections in Nepal have been set for November 2013.

 

Tags: , , , , , , ,

Health Inequality And Modern Day Slavery

“They never took me to the doctor when I was ill.” These are the words spoken by Merieme Mint Hamadi when asked about her life as a slave. Merieme, one of an estimated half a million people in Mauritania who are enslaved, lives in some of the world’s worst conditions. Her country, which has a population estimated to rival Chicago, was the last country in the world to make slavery a crime. However, since that 2007 law was passed – almost 150 years since Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in the US – only one person has been successfully prosecuted for owning another human in Mauritania. The health and human rights violations that exist there today have led to the UN ranking Mauritania at 155 out of 187 countries on its 2013 inequality-adjusted Human Development Index.

The UN estimated that in 2012 for every 100,000 live births in the country, 510 women die from pregnancy, with significant disparities between the death rates of Black slaves and Arab owners. Of even greater concern is that due to female slaves being forced to have children with owners, an estimated 71.3 births per 1,000 live births are to adolescents who suffer extreme mental and physical abuse. In John Sutter’s captivating CNN coverage of oppression, Slavery’s Last Stronghold, he reports that, “In Mauritania, the shackles of slavery are mental as well as physical.” He goes on to describe the political and societal methods through which the lighter-skinned Arabs maintain their ownership of the dark-skinned peoples.

Kevin Bales, an expert on modern day slavery, wrote in his book Disposable People that even if someone of bondage attempts to leave an owner, “for most, freedom means starvation.” He claims that because slaves are, “immediately recognizable by color, clothing and speech” they will not be given shelter or proper care by others. Further, Mr. Bales asserts that on the streets of Mauritania, “ there are already a good number of beggars, many of them disabled, to remind slaves of where they almost certainly end up” if they were to leave their masters.

“Mauritania is a country with scarce resources – including access to medical care. The health needs of slave owners come first in Mauritania; the health needs of slaves come last. Slave children are chronically malnourished. Slave women are frequently victims of sexual assault by their owners and the devastating health problems that result.” says Sean Tenner, Co-Founder of the Abolition Institute, an organization focused on ending Mauritanian slavery and a veteran of numerous public health campaigns.

Despite the country’s open system of ownership, to date, the US has not taken a stance against the practice. The country, located on the western fringe of the Sahara, is not densely populated, and therefore practices of the owners are not easily monitored by the government. Further, the country’s ruling elite makes no attempt to fight slavery, as they claim to the UN that slavery does not exist.

However, what is most surprising in 2013 is not the lack of Mauritanian action against their own traditions, but the lack of American recognition and action. At a time when the US tries to face its own challenges with inequality, health, human rights and foreign policy, it is saddening to know we also neglect others.

Mauritania is also deeply divided by access to basic human rights such as health. In 2000, it was estimated that only 37% of the country had access to safe drinking water and 33% to adequate sanitation. Life expectancy has hovered around 57 for both sexes for many years, but with great disparities between the slaves and owners.

The US has done nothing to date but overlook the unlivable health conditions and human rights violations in the region for those that are born into bondage.

In the United States however, one group is taking action to make Americans aware of the atrocities faced by the Mauritanian slaves, and the health and human rights violations that exist. The Abolition Institute, founded in Chicago by Mr. Tenner and former Mauritanian slaves, was recently formed to end the practice of slavery in Mauritania, and bring freedom to those suffering under the inhumane circumstances of maltreatment, malnourishment and abuse.

The organization does everything from educating the public on the religious aspects of modern day slavery to informing about the living conditions and health of slaves through noting disparate practices such as “gavaging” in Mauritania, where women of Arab decent try to gain weight to show that they are wealthy elite and not poor slaves with emaciated frames.

However, the devastating effects of slavery run much deeper than the physical effects. The extreme consequences the effects of slavery have on mental health know no bounds.

In Slavery’s Last Stronghold, a leader of an abolition group tells Sutter that many similarities exist between modern slavery in Mauritania and that in the United States before the Civil War, but that the one fundamental difference between the two in his mind is the use of physical restraint. “Chains are for the slave who has just become a slave, who has . . . just been brought across the Atlantic,” Boubacar said. “But the multigeneration slave, the slave descending from many generations, he is a slave even in his own head. And he is totally submissive. He is ready to sacrifice himself, even, for his master. And, unfortunately, it’s this type of slavery that we have today” — the slavery “American plantation owners dreamed of.”

 

Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,

 
%d bloggers like this: